Abeysundara PDA, Dhowlaghar N, Nannapaneni R, Schilling MW, Chang S, Mahmoud B, Sharma CS, Ma D-P (2017) Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe flesh and peel extracts on four food-contact surfaces at 22°C and 10°C. Food Control 80: 131-142
Aguiar FLN, Gastal GDA, Ishak GM, Gastal MO, Teixeira DIA, Feugang JM, Figueiredo JR,Gastal EL (2017) Effects of FSH addition to an enriched medium containing insulin and EGF after long-term culture on functionality of equine ovarian biopsy tissue. Theriogenology 99: 124-133
Gastal GDA, Aguiar FLN, Alves BG, Alves KA, de Tarso SGS, Ishak GM, Cavinder CA, Feugang JM, Gastal EL (2017) Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture. Theriogenology 97: 139-147
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation allows the preservation of the female fertility potential for an undetermined period. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficiency of cryoprotective agents (CPAs; dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO; ethylene glycol, EG; and propylene glycol, PROH) using slow-freezing and vitrification methods, and evaluate the viability of cryopreserved equine ovarian tissue after 7 days of culture. Fresh and cryopreserved ovarian fragments were evaluated for preantral follicle morphology, stromal cell density, EGFR, Ki-67, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, and DNA fragmentation. Vitrification with EG had the highest rate of morphologically normal preantral follicles, while DMSO had the lowest (76.1 +/- 6.1% and 40.9 +/- 14.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). In slow-freezing, despite that DMSO had the highest percentage of morphologically normal follicles (77.7 +/- 5.8%), no difference among the CPAs was observed. Fluorescence intensity of EGFR and Ki-67 was greater when vitrification with EG was used. Regardless of the cryopreservation treatment, DMSO had the highest (P < 0.05) Bax/Bcl-2 ratio; however, DNA fragmentation was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments after thawing. After in vitro culture, the percentage of normal follicles was similar (P > 0.05) between slow-freezing and vitrification methods; however, vitrification had greater (P < 0.05) stromal cell density than slow-freezing. In summary, equine ovarian tissue was successfully cryopreserved, increasing the viability of the cells in the ovarian tissue after thawing when using DMSO and EG for slow-freezing and vitrification methods, respectively. Therefore, these results are relevant for fertility preservation programs.
Abdelhamed H, Ibrahim I, Nho SW, Banes MM, Wills RW, Karsi A,Lawrence ML (2017) Evaluation of three recombinant outer membrane proteins, OmpA1, Tdr, and TbpA, as potential vaccine antigens against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 66: 480-486
A virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) is recognized as the etiological agent in outbreaks of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States since 2009. Genomic subtraction revealed three outer membrane proteins present in VAh strain ML09-119 but not in low virulence reference A. hydrophila strains: major outer membrane protein OmpA1, TonB-dependent receptor (Tdr), and transferrin-binding protein A (TbpA). Here, the genes encoding ompA1, tdr, and tbpA were cloned from A. hydrophila ML09-119 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant OmpA1, Tdr, and TbpA proteins had estimated molecular weights of 37.26, 78.55, and 41.67 kDa, respectively. Catfish fingerlings vaccinated with OmpA1, Tdr, and TbpA emulsified with non-mineral oil adjuvant were protected against subsequent VAh strain ML09-119 infection with 98.59%, 95.59%, and 47.89% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, the mean liver, spleen, and anterior kidney bacterial concentrations were significantly lower in catfish vaccinated with the OmpA1 and Tdr than the sham-vaccinated control group. ELISA demonstrated that catfish immunized with OmpA1, Tdr, and TbpA produce significant antibody response by 21 days post-immunization. Therefore, OmpA1 and Tdr proteins could be used as potential candidates for vaccine development against virulent A. hydrophila infection. However, TbpA protein failed to provide strong protection.
Allen PJ, Haukenes A, Lochmann SE (2017) Similarity of osmoregulatory capacity in coastal and inland alligator gar. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 209: 16-24
The alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is a primitive fish species, occupying a wide range of temperature and salinity habitats. Long-distance movements are limited, leading to genetic differentiation between inland and coastal populations. Unknown is whether physiological capacity differs between geographically separated populations, particularly for traits important to osmoregulation in saline environments. Alligator gar from inland and coastal populations were reared in a similar environment and exposed to temperature (10, 30 degrees C) and salinity (0, 20ppt) extremes to determine whether iono- and osmoregulatory ability differed between populations. There were few differences in osmoregulatory ability between populations, with similar gill, blood and gastrointestinal tract osmoregulatory parameters. Blood plasma osmolality, ion concentrations, intestinal pH and bicarbonate base concentrations, intestinal fluid osmolality, ion concentrations and gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity were similar between populations. Notably, gar from both populations did not osmoregulate well at low temperature and high salinity, with elevated plasma osmolality and ion concentrations, low gill NKA, and little evidence of gastrointestinal tract contribution to ionic and base regulation based on a lack of intestinal fluid and low base content. Therefore, the hypothesis that coastal gar would have improved osmotic regulatory ability in saline environments as compared to inland alligator gar was not supported, suggesting physiological capacity may be retained in primitive species possibly due to its importance to their persistence through time.
Shields-Menard SA, AmirSadeghi M, Green M, Womack E, Sparks DL, Blake J, Edelmann M, Ding X, Sukhbaatar B, Hernandez R, Donaldson JR, French T (2017) The effects of model aromatic lignin compounds on growth and lipid accumulation of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 121: 79-90
Reichley SR, Waldbieser GC, Soto E, Lawrence ML, Griffin MJ (2017) Complete Genome Sequence of Edwardsiella ictaluri Isolate RUSVM-1 Recovered from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Western Hemisphere. Genome Announcements 5(24): e00390-17
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative bacillus that has recently been implicated in disease outbreaks in tilapia and zebrafish. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of an isolate from a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which contains a chromosome of 3,630,639 bp and two plasmids.
Miao Q, Deng P, Saha S, Jenkins JN, Hsu CY, Abdurakhmonov IY, Buriev ZT, Pepper A, Ma DP (2017) Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs differentially expressed in fibers in a cotton phytochrome A1 RNAi line. PLoS One 12(6): e0179381
Cotton fiber is an important commodity throughout the world. Fiber property determines fiber quality and commercial values. Previous studies showed that silencing phytochrome A1 gene (PHYA1) by RNA interference in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312) had generated PHYA1 RNAi lines with simultaneous improvements in fiber quality (longer, stronger and finer fiber) and other key agronomic traits. Characterization of the altered molecular processes in these RNAi genotypes and its wild-type controls is a great interest to better understand the PHYA1 RNAi phenotypes. In this study, a total of 77 conserved miRNAs belonging to 61 families were examined in a PHYA1 RNAi line and its parental Coker 312 genotype by using multiplex sequencing. Of these miRNAs, seven (miR7503, miR7514, miR399c, miR399d, miR160, miR169b, and miR2950) were found to be differentially expressed in PHYA1 RNAi cotton. The target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in the metabolism and signaling pathways of phytohormones, which included Gibberellin, Auxin and Abscisic Acid. The expression of several MYB transcription factors was also affected by miRNAs in RNAi cotton. In addition, 35 novel miRNAs (novel miR1-novel miR35) were identified in fibers for the first time in this study. Target genes of vast majority of these novel miRNAs were also predicted. Of these, nine novel miRNAs (novel-miR1, 2, 16, 19, 26, 27, 28, 31 and 32) were targeted to cytochrome P450-like TATA box binding protein (TBP). The qRT-PCR confirmed expression levels of several differentially regulated miRNAs. Expression patterns of four miRNAs-targets pairs were also examined via RNA deep sequencing. Together, the results imply that the regulation of miRNA expression might confer to the phenotype of the PHYA1 RNAi line(s) with improved fiber quality.
Shaak SG, Counterman BA (2017) High warning colour polymorphism in Heliconius hybrid zone roosts. Ecological Entomology 42(3): 315-324
Gastal GDA, Hamilton A, Alves BG, de Tarso SGS, Feugang JM, Banz WJ, Apgar GA, Nielsen CK, Gastal EL (2017) Ovarian features in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and does. PLoS One 12(5): e0177357
The knowledge about ovarian reserve is essential to determine the reproductive potential and to improve the methods of fertility control for overpopulated species, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the female reproductive tract of white-tailed deer, focusing on ovarian features. Genital tracts from 8 prepubertal and 10 pubertal females were used to characterize the preantral follicle population and density, morphology, distribution of follicular classes; stromal cell density; and apoptosis in the ovary. In addition, uterus and ovary weights and dimensions were recorded; and the number and the size of antral follicles and corpus luteum in the ovary were quantified. Overall, fawns had a greater (P < 0.05) preantral follicle population, percentage of normal follicles, and preantral follicle density than does. The mean stromal cell density in ovaries of fawns and does differed among animals but not between age groups. The apoptotic signaling did not differ (P > 0.05) between the ovaries of fawns and does. However, apoptotic ovarian cells negatively (P < 0.001) affected the preantral follicle morphology and density, and conversely, a positive correlation was observed with stromal cell density. As expected, the uteri and ovaries were larger (P < 0.002) and heavier (P < 0.001) in does than in fawns. In conclusion, this study has shown, for the first time, the preantral follicle population and distribution of classes, rate of morphologically normal follicles, and density of preantral follicles and stromal cells in white- tailed deer. Therefore, the findings herein described lead to a better understanding of the white-tailed deer ovarian biology, facilitating the development of new methods of fertility control.
Bednarova A, Hanna M, Durham I, VanCleave T, England A, Chaudhuri A, Krishnan N (2017) Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 10: 135
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon-codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity. This phenomenon of nucleoside modification is most remarkable and results in a rich structural diversity of tRNA of which over 100 modified nucleosides have been characterized. Most often these hypermodified nucleosides are found in the wobble position of tRNAs, where they play a direct role in codon recognition as well as in maintaining translational efficiency and fidelity, etc. Several recent studies have pointed to a link between defects in tRNA modifications and human diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, defects in tRNA modifications in humans need intensive characterization at the enzymatic and mechanistic level in order to pave the way to understand how lack of such modifications are associated with neurological disorders with the ultimate goal of gaining insights into therapeutic interventions.
Fenner J, Seltzer J, Peyton S, Sullivan H, Tolson P, Walsh RP, Hill J, Counterman BA (2017) Demographic Variation of Wolbachia Infection in the Endangered Mitchell's Satyr Butterfly. Insects 8(2): 50
The Mitchell's satyr, Neonympha mitchellii, is an endangered species that is limited to highly isolated habitats in the northern and southern United States. Conservation strategies for isolated endangered species often implement captive breeding and translocation programs for repopulation. However, these programs risk increasing the spread of harmful pathogens, such as the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Wolbachia can manipulate the host's reproduction leading to incompatibilities between infected and uninfected hosts. This study uses molecular methods to screen for Wolbachia presence across the distribution of the Mitchell's satyr and its subspecies, St. Francis satyr, which are both federally listed as endangered and are considered two of the rarest butterflies in North America. The screens confirmed the presence of Wolbachia in the northern and newly discovered southern populations of the Mitchell's satyr, but not in the St. Francis satyr population. These results combined with previous reports of Wolbachia in N. mitchellii, highlight that Wolbachia infection varies both geographically and temporally in satyr populations. The temporal variance shows the importance of continued monitoring of Wolbachia infection during conservation programs. To reduce the risk of reproductive incompatibilities, it is advised that all individuals collected for conservation purposes be screened for Wolbachia and recommended to avoid the use of infected individuals for captive breeding and translocation programs.
Hassan M, Di Bello PL, Keller KE, Martin RR, Sabanadzovic S, Tzanetakis IE (2017) A new, widespread emaravirus discovered in blackberry. Virus Research 235: 1-5
A new virus was identified in blackberry plants exhibiting leaf mottling, chlorotic ringspots and curved midribs, symptoms associated with blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). The genome of the new virus, provisionally named blackberry leaf mottle-associated virus (BLMaV), was characterized and phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to recognized members of the genus Emaravirus. BLMaV was transmitted by a yet to be described eriophyid mite species, further reinforcing its placement in the genus. Detection protocols were developed and used to determine the presence of the virus in plants collected from several areas in the U.S.A. The incidence of BLMaV was greater than 40% in BYVD-affected material.
Adams MJ, Lefkowitz EJ, King AM, Harrach B, Harrison RL, Knowles NJ, Kropinski AM, Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Mushegian AR, Nibert ML, Sabanadzovic S, Sanfacon H, Siddell SG, Simmonds P, Varsani A, Zerbini FM, Orton RJ, Smith DB, Gorbalenya AE,Davison AJ (2017) 50 years of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: progress and prospects. Archives of Virology 162(5): 1441-1446
We mark the 50th anniversary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) by presenting a brief history of the organization since its foundation, showing how it has adapted to advancements in our knowledge of virus diversity and the methods used to characterize it. We also outline recent developments, supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust (UK), that are facilitating substantial changes in the operations of the ICTV and promoting dialogue with the virology community. These developments will generate improved online resources, including a freely available and regularly updated ICTV Virus Taxonomy Report. They also include a series of meetings between the ICTV and the broader community focused on some of the major challenges facing virus taxonomy, with the outcomes helping to inform the future policy and practice of the ICTV.