Glasa M, Predajňa L, Sihelska N, Soltys K, Ruiz-Garcia AB, Olmos A, Wetzel T, Sabanadzovic S (2018) Grapevine virus T is relatively widespread in Slovakia and Czech Republic and genetically diverse. Virus Genes 54(5): 737-741.
Viana AGA, Martins AMA, Pontes AH, Fontes W, Castro MS, Ricart CAO, Sousa MV, Kaya A, Topper E, Memili E, Moura AA (2018) Proteomic landscape of seminal plasma associated with dairy bull fertility. Scientific Reports 8(1): 16323.
Li L, DeLiberto TJ, Killian ML, Torchetti MK, Wan XF (2018) Evolutionary pathway for the 2017 emergence of a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among domestic poultry in Tennessee, United States. Virology 525: 32-39.
Siegert CM, Clay NA, Tang JD, Garrigues LG, Riggins JJ (2018) Indirect effects of bark beetle-generated dead wood on biogeochemical and decomposition processes in a pine forest. Oecologia 188(4): 1209-1226.
Schuler GA, Tice AK, Pearce RA, Foreman E, Stone J, Gammill S, Willson JD, Reading C, Silberman JD, Brown MW (2018) Phylogeny and Classification of Novel Diversity in Sainouroidea (Cercozoa, Rhizaria) Sheds Light on a Highly Diverse and Divergent Clade. Protist 169(6): 853-874.
Wang X, Kiess AS, Peebles ED, Wamsley KGS, Zhai W (2018) Effects of Bacillus subtilis and zinc on the growth performance, internal organ development, and intestinal morphology of male broilers with or without subclinical coccidia challenge. Poultry Science 97(11): 3947-3956.
Effects of antibiotic (bacitracin), anticoccidial (narasin), and alternative (Bacillus subtilis and zinc) feed additives on growth performance, internal organ development, and intestinal morphology of commercial broilers with or without subclinical coccidia challenge were determined. A total of 1,344 1-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed into 12 treatments (6 diets × 2 challenge treatments, 8 replication pens/treatment) in 96 floor pens. The 6 dietary treatments were as follows: a control diet (corn and soybean-meal basal diet), a probiotic diet (basal diet + Bacillus subtilis), a zinc diet (basal diet + 100 ppm zinc), a probiotic and zinc combined diet, an anticoccidial diet (basal diet + narasin), and a practical diet (basal diet + narasin + bacitracin). On day 21, each chick in the challenge treatment was gavaged with a 10× dose of a commercial vaccine containing live Eimeria oocytes, whereas each chick in the non-challenge treatment was gavaged with equivalent distilled water. The subclinical coccidia challenge increased the relative weights of pancreas and decreased the ileal crypt depth of broilers at 26 d of age, increased feed conversion ratios from day 15 to 28 and 29 to 40, and increased the relative weights of duodenum and bursa on day 54. As compared to other diets, anticoccidial and practical diets increased BW gain and decreased feed conversion ratio from day 15 to 28, and increased the day 40 carcass weights. As compared to control diets, probiotic diets decreased BW gain and increased the mortality from day 15 to 28; however, probiotic diets did not affect the overall growth performance from day 0 to 54 or carcass yield on day 54. Growth measurements during periods of day 29 to 40 and day 41 to 54 were not affected by any feed additive. From this study, a subclinical coccidia challenge enlarged specific internal organs and compromised the feed conversion ability of broilers. Dietary Bacillus subtilis did not affect overall growth rate or carcass yield of broilers under subclinical coccidia challenge.
Park SB, White SB, Steadman CS, Cavinder CA, Willard ST, Ryan PL, Feugang JM (2018) Real-Time Bioluminescence Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival on Livestock Meats Stored Fresh, Cold, or Frozen. Journal of Food Protection 81(11): 1906-1912.
Foodborne bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause severe hemorrhagic colitis in humans following consumption of contaminated meat products. Contamination with pathogenic bacteria is frequently found in the food production environment, and adequate household storage conditions of purchased foods are vital for illness avoidance. Real-time monitoring was used to evaluate bacterial growth in ground horse, beef, and pork meats maintained under various storage conditions. Various levels of E. coli O157:H7 carrying the luxCDABE operon, which allows the cells to emit bioluminescence, were used to inoculate meat samples that were then stored at room temperature for 0.5 day, at 4°C (cold) for 7 or 9 days, or -20°C (frozen) for 9 days. Real-time bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of bacterial growth was used to assess bacterial survival or load. Ground horse meat BLI signals and E. coli levels were dose and time dependent, increasing during room temperature and -20°C storage, but stayed at low levels during 4°C storage. No bacteria survived in the lower level inoculum groups (101 and 103 CFU/g). With an inoculum of 107 CFU/g, pork meats had higher BLI signals than did their beef counterparts, displaying decreased BLI signals during 7 days storage at 4°C. Both meat types had higher BLI signals in the fat area, which was confirmed with isolated fat tissues in the beef meat. Beef lean and fat tissues contrasted with both pork fat and lean tissues, which had significantly higher BLI signals and bacterial levels. BLI appears to be a useful research tool for real-time monitoring of bacterial growth and survival in various stored livestock meats. The dependence of E. coli O157:H7 growth on meat substrate (fat or lean) and storage conditions may be used as part of an effective antibacterial approach for the production of safe ground horse, beef, and pork meats.
Kosikova M, Li L, Radvak P, Ye Z, Wan XF, Xie H (2018) Imprinting of Repeated Influenza A/H3 Exposures on Antibody Quantity and Antibody Quality: Implications for Seasonal Vaccine Strain Selection and Vaccine Performance. Clinical Infectious Diseases 67(10): 1523-1532.
Background: Reduced seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was observed in individuals who received repeated annual vaccinations. Preexisting influenza antibody levels were also found inversely correlated with postvaccination titers. These reports suggest that preexisting immunity may affect contemporary seasonal vaccine performance. Methods: Influenza A/H3 specific cross-reactivity of postvaccination sera from humans with or without preexisting immunity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Ferret antisera induced by repeated H3 exposures were also subjected to HAI, antibody affinity, and antibody avidity analyses. Results: Human postvaccination sera derived from subjects with or without preexisting immunity showed different cross-reactivity against H3 variant viruses. Similarly, the breadth of cross-reactive ferret antibodies induced by repeated H3 exposures was also broadened. Antigenic differences between H3 viruses characterized by ferret antisera became smaller as the number of exposures increased. Although repeated H3 exposures induced "original antigenic sin" phenomena in HAI titers against later exposed viruses, resultant ferret antibodies showed gradually enhanced avidity for different H3/hemagglutinin. Increased antibody avidity was found to be inversely correlated with decreased antigenic differences among H3 viruses characterized. Conclusions: Our results suggest that repeated H3 exposures imprinted not only antibody quantity but also antibody quality. The "naive" ferret model currently used for vaccine strain selection does not recapitulate the complexity of human preexisting immunity. Vaccine strains identified hereby may not provide coverage sufficient for those who were frequently infected and/or vaccinated, leading to the reduced VE observed.
Van Belleghem SM, Baquero M, Papa R, Salazar C, McMillan WO, Counterman BA, Jiggins C, Martin SH (2018) Patterns of Z chromosome divergence among Heliconius species highlight the importance of historical demography. Molecular Ecology 27(19): 3852-3872.
Jiang J, Smith HN, Ren D, Mudiyanselage SDD, Dawe AL, Wang L, Wang Y (2018) Potato spindle tuber viroid modulates its replication through a direct interaction with a splicing regulator. Journal of Virology 92(20): e01004.
Li L, Bowman AS, DeLiberto TJ, Killian ML, Krauss S, Nolting JM, Torchetti MK, Ramey AM, Reeves AB, Stallknecht DE, Webby RJ, Wan XF (2018) Genetic evidence supports sporadic and independent introductions of subtype H5 low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry in North America. Journal of Virology 92(19): e00913.
Background: Mature spermatozoa contain numerous epididymal and seminal plasma proteins, which full identification through high-throughput technologies may allow for a better understanding of the sperm biology. Therefore, we conducted a global proteomic analysis of boar spermatozoa through shotgun and gel-based methodologies. Results: The total proteins were extracted from mature spermatozoa and subjecsted to proteome analyses. Functional analyses of gene ontology representations and pathway enrichments were conducted on the shotgun dataset, followed by immunology and gene expression validations. Shotgun and gel-based approaches allowed the detection of 2728 proteins and 2123 spots, respectively. Approximately 38% and 59% of total proteins were respectively fully and partially annotated, and 3% were unknown. Gene ontology analysis indicated high proportions of proteins associated with intracellular and cytoplasm localizations, protein and nucleic acid binding, hydrolase and transferase activities, and cellular, metabolic, and regulation of biological processes. Proteins associated with phosphorylation processes and mitochondrial membranes, nucleic acid binding, and phosphate and phosphorous metabolics represented 77% of the dataset. Pathways associated with oxidative phosphorylation, citrate cycle, and extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction were significantly enriched. Protein complex, intracellular organelle, cytoskeletal parts, fertilization and reproduction, and gap junction pathway were significantly enriched within the top 116 highly abundant proteins. Nine randomly selected protein candidates were confirmed with gel-based identification, immunofluorescence detection, and mRNA expression. Conclusions: This study offers an in-depth proteomic mapping of mature boar spermatozoa that will enable comparative and discovery research for the improvement of male fertility.
Okada R, Alcala-Briseno RI, Escalante C, Sabanadzovic S, Valverde RA (2018) Genomic sequence of a novel endornavirus from Phaseolus vulgaris and occurrence in mixed infections with two other endornaviruses. Virus Research 257: 63-67.
Jefferson VA, Barber KA, El-Mayet FS, Jones C, Nanduri B, Meyer F (2018) Proteogenomic identification of a novel protein-encoding gene in bovine herpesvirus 1 that is expressed during productive infection. Viruses 10(9): 499.