Gene therapy is a promising technology for the treatment of several acquired and inherited diseases. However, for gene therapy to be a commercial and clinical success, scalable cell culture processes must be in place to produce the required amount of viral vectors to meet market demand. Each type of vector has its own distinct characteristics and consequently its own challenges for production. This article reviews the current technology that has been developed for the efficient, large-scale manufacture of retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus vectors.
Ross MK, Borazjani A, Edwards CC, Potter PM (2006) Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroids by human and other mammalian carboxylesterases. Biochemical Pharmacology 71(5): 657-669.
Pyrethroid chemicals are attractive alternatives to the organophosphates (OPs) because of their selective toxicity against pests rather than mammals. The carboxylesterases (CEs) are hepatic enzymes that metabolize ester-containing xenobiotics such as pyrethroids. The primary aim of this study was to gain insight into the catalytic properties of the CE enzymes in humans that metabolize pyrethroids, while a secondary aim was to investigate pyrethroid metabolism using CEs from other mammalian species. Pure human CEs (hCE-1 and hCE-2), a rabbit CE (rCE), and two rat CEs (Hydrolases A and B) were used to study the hydrolytic metabolism of the following pyrethroids: 1Rtrans-resmethrin (bioresmethrin), 1RStrans-permethrin, and 1RScis-permethrin. hCE-1 and hCE-2 hydrolyzed trans-permethrin 8- and 28-fold more efficiently than cis-permethrin (when k(cat)/K(m) values were compared), respectively. In contrast, hydrolysis of bioresmethrin was catalyzed efficiently by hCE-1, but not by hCE-2. The kinetic parameters for the pure rat and rabbit CEs were qualitatively similar to the human CEs when hydrolysis rates of the investigated pyrethroids were evaluated. Further, a comparison of pyrethroid hydrolysis by hepatic microsomes from rats, mice, and humans indicated that the rates for each compound were similar between species, which further supports the use of rodent models for pyrethroid metabolism studies. An eight-fold range in hydrolytic rates for 11 individual human liver samples toward trans-permethrin was also found, although this variability was not related to the levels of hCE-1 protein in each sample. We also determined that the CE inhibitor 2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzil blocked hCE-2-catalyzed trans-permethrin hydrolysis 36 times more potently than hCE-1. Thus, this inhibitor will be useful in future studies that examine CE-mediated metabolism of pyrethroids. While there are likely other esterases in human liver that hydrolyze pyrethroids, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that hCE-1 and hCE-2 are human pyrethroid-hydrolyzing CEs.
Fallon AM, Shah N, Marzec UM, Warnock JN, Yoganathan AP, Hanson SR (2006) Flow and thrombosis at orifices simulating mechanical heart valve leakage regions. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 128(1): 30-39.
BACKGROUND: While it is established that mechanical heart valves (MHVs) damage blood elements during leakage and forward flow, the role in thrombus formation of platelet activation by high shear flow geometries remains unclear. In this study, continuously recalcified blood was used to measure the effects of blood flow through orifices, which model MHVs, on the generation of procoagulant thrombin and the resulting formation of thrombus. The contribution of platelets to this process was also assessed. METHOD OF APPROACH: 200, 400, 800, and 1200 microm orifices simulated the hinge region of bileaflet MHVs, and 200, 400, and 800 microm wide slits modeled the centerline where the two leaflets meet when the MHV is closed. To assess activation of coagulation during blood recirculation, samples were withdrawn over 0-47 min and the plasmas assayed for thrombin-antithrombin-llI (TAT) levels. Model geometries were also inspected visually. RESULTS: The 200 and 400 microm round orifices induced significant TAT generation and thrombosis over the study interval. In contrast, thrombin generation by the slit orifices, and by the 800 and 1200 microm round orifices, was negligible. In additional experiments with nonrecalcified or platelet-depleted blood, TAT levels were markedly reduced versus the studies with fully anticoagulated whole blood (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using the present method, a significant increase in TAT concentration was found for 200 and 400 microm orifices, but not 800 and 1200 microm orifices, indicating that these flow geometries exhibit a critical threshold for activation of coagulation and resulting formation of thrombus. Markedly lower TAT levels were produced in studies with platelet-depleted blood, documenting a key role for platelets in the thrombotic process.
Liu D, Lawrence ML, Gorski L, Mandrell RE, Ainsworth AJ, Austin FW (2006) Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains belonging to lineages I and III possess distinct molecular features. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44(1): 214-217.
A collection of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains belonging to lineages I and III were examined by PCR and Southern blot analysis using species-, virulence-, and serotype-specific primers and probes. Whereas four serotype 4b lineage I strains reacted in PCR with the serotype 4b-, 4d-, and 4e-specific ORF2110 and virulence-specific lmo1134 and lmo2821 primers, all nine serotype 4b lineage III strains were negative by ORF2110 and lmo1134 primers. In addition, the nine serotype 4b lineage III strains formed two separate groups through their reactions in PCR with virulence-specific lmo2821 primers. Southern blot analysis using species-specific lmo0733 and virulence-specific lmo2821 gene probes largely confirmed the PCR results. These findings indicate that L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains belonging to lineages I and III possess distinct molecular features.
Mohan S, Ma PW, Pechan T, Bassford ER, Williams WP, Luthe DS (2006) Degradation of the S. frugiperda peritrophic matrix by an inducible maize cysteine protease. Journal of Insect Physiology 52(1): 21-28.
A unique 33-kDa cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) rapidly accumulates at the feeding site in the whorls of maize (Zea mays L.) lines that are resistant to herbivory by Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran species. When larvae were reared on resistant plants, larval growth was reduced due to impaired nutrient utilization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the peritrophic matrix (PM) was damaged when larvae fed on resistant plants or transgenic maize callus expressing Mir1-CP. To directly determine the effects of Mir1-CP on the PM in vitro, dissected PMs were treated with purified, recombinant Mir1-CP and the movement of Blue Dextran 2000 across the PM was measured. Mir1-CP completely permeabilized the PM and the time required to reach full permeability was inversely proportional to the concentration of Mir1-CP. Inclusion of E64, a specific cysteine protease inhibitor prevented the damage. The lumen side of the PM was more vulnerable to Mir1-CP attack than the epithelial side. Mir1-CP damaged the PM at pH values as high as 8.5 and more actively permeabilized the PM than equivalent concentrations of the cysteine proteases papain, bromelain and ficin. The effect of Mir1-CP on the PMs of Helicoverpa zea, Danaus plexippus, Ostrinia nubilalis, Periplaneta americana and Tenebrio molitor also was tested, but the greatest effect was on the S. frugiperda PM. These results demonstrate that the insect-inducible Mir1-CP directly damages the PM in vitro and is critical to insect defense in maize.
Parker HM, McDaniel CD (2006) The immediate impact of semen diluent and rate of dilution on the sperm quality index, ATP utilization, gas exchange, and ionic balance of broiler breeder sperm. Poultry Science 85(1): 106-116.
The sperm quality index (SQI) is a tool used to predict overall rooster semen quality, fertility, and hatchability. However, semen must be diluted before SQI analysis, and research has shown that the SQI is most predictive of fertility at lower semen dilutions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine why the SQI is not as predictive of fertility at higher semen dilutions and whether semen diluent type alters the SQI, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) utilization, gas exchange, and ionic balance of broiler breeder sperm. Semen was diluted with saline, seminal plasma, or minimum essential medium (MEM) from 2- to 200-fold. The following parameters were measured for each diluent type at each dilution: SQI, ATP, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl-, CO₂, and O₂. To examine the rate of sperm motility, the SQI was expressed as SQI/million sperm per mL (SQI/sperm). There was an interaction between diluent type and dilution for the SQI, SQI/sperm, CO₂ generated, O₂ used, as well as Na+, Ca2+, and K+ internalization. For sperm diluted with saline, the SQI declined more rapidly with increasing dilution. However, SQI/sperm increased rapidly when semen was diluted with MEM or SP. Sperm diluted in SP used ATP with increasing dilution whereas sperm diluted with saline and MEM generated ATP. Neat semen contained no free O₂; however, each diluent type contained abundant O₂ resulting in more O₂ available as semen was diluted. Sperm diluted in SP produced more CO₂ and used more O₂ than semen diluted in saline or MEM. For SQI/sperm, ATP and CO₂ generated, as well as Na+ and Ca2+ internalization, differences between diluent types occurred when semen was diluted 50-fold and greater. In conclusion, it appears that sperm motility, ATP utilization, gas exchange, and ionic balance are altered by diluent type and rate of dilution. These alterations in semen quality are exacerbated at semen dilutions of 50-fold and greater yielding an SQI that is not indicative of sperm motility or fertility.
Warnock JN, Burgess SC, Shack LA, Yoganathan AP (2006) Differential immediate-early gene responses to elevated pressure in porcine aortic valve interstitial cells. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 15(1): 34-41.
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Cardiovascular risk factors are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of aortic valve disease. In the present study the hypothesis was proposed that elevated pressure would cause a change in the expression of prototypical pro-inflammatory genes. Hence, the expression of MCP-1, osteopontin (OPN), VCAM-1, GM-CSF and PAI-1 was examined using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR. METHODS: Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells at passage 1 were exposed to constant pressures of 100, 140, or 170 mmHg or cyclic pressures of 80-120, 120-160, or 150-190 mmHg for 2 h. Static cultures at atmospheric pressure served as controls. Total RNA from pooled experiments was isolated for analysis of gene expression. Single tube primer-mediated RT-PCR was performed directly on the RNA. RESULTS: Cells responded differently to constant and cyclic pressure. The most notable response was the expression of OPN, which was significantly up-regulated under steady conditions but down-regulated under cyclic conditions. The opposite was true in VCAM-1 expression, which was significantly down-regulated at 170 mmHg static pressure, but up-regulated at 140 and 170 mmHg mean cyclic pressure. There was no clear proportional correlation between pressure magnitude and expression of MCP-1, GM-CSF, or PAI-1. However, elevated cyclic pressure caused a proportional increase in VCAM-1 expression and a proportional decrease in OPN expression. CONCLUSION: Elevated cyclic pressure is a potent stimulus for the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression and the down-regulation of OPN expression. This demonstrates an association between hypertension and aortic valve stenosis and calcification. The regulation of the chemotactic genes MCP-1 and GM-CSF is not correlated to a change in compressive forces.
Scott TR, Messersmith AR, McCrary WJ, Herlong JL, Burgess SC (2005) Hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in the chicken Harderian gland. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 108(3-4): 295-306.
The Harderian gland (HG), a sero-mucous secreting organ in the eye orbit, has long been recognized as immunologically important in chickens. During experimentation to characterize immune components of the gland, proteomics analysis revealed the presence of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS). Extraction of total RNA followed by RT-PCR produced cDNA of 597 base pairs. DNA sequencing revealed nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences that were 99% aligned with the one published sequence for chicken H-PGDS of the spleen. Alignment with murine, rat, and human H-PGDS were 69, 69, and 66%, respectively. Ocular vaccination of chickens with a Newcastle Disease/Infectious Bronchitis vaccine (Mass.-Ark. Strain) induced an increase in H-PGDS expression determined by real-time PCR. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry of frozen HG sections showed positive stained cells for both H-PGDS and mast cell tryptase in the sub-epithelial cell layers of the HG ducts. Based on the potent vasoactive role of PGD(2), it appears that the chicken HG is a site of active mucosal immunity partially mediated by PGD(2) synthesized by H-PGDS in the gland.
Karsi A, Wolters WR, Waldbieser GC (2005) Assignment of immune-related genes to the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, genetic map. Animal Genetics 36(6): 502-506.
Eighteen new genes, adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1), complement component 4-beta (C4b), complement component 8-beta (C8b), chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4), chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), interleukin 1-beta (IL1B), integrin II-beta (ITGB2), novel immune type receptor 2 (NITR2), novel immune type receptor 4 (NITR4), natural killer cell lysin (NKLYSIN), nucleotide excision repair (RAD23B) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), were assigned to the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genetic linkage map. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for NITR2, NITR4 and RAD23B from short-tandem repeats in the available sequence. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the remaining 15 genes by short-tandem repeat-anchored primer sequencing of catfish bacterial artificial chromosomes. Two gene clusters (MYOG-NRAMP-ADORA1) and (CCR4-CCR2-CCR5) displayed conservation of synteny between catfish and mammals. Assignment of 18 new genes to the catfish linkage map will further advance integration of genetic and physical maps and comparative mapping between channel catfish and map rich species.
Lamoureux D, Peterson DG, Li W, Fellers JP, Gill BS (2005) The efficacy of Cot-based gene enrichment in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome 48(6): 1120-1126.
We report the results of a study on the effectiveness of Cot filtration (CF) in the characterization of the gene space of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a large genome species (1C=16,700 Mb) of tremendous agronomic importance. Using published Cot data as a guide, 2 genomic libraries for hexaploid wheat were constructed from the single-stranded DNA collected at Cot values > 1188 and 1639 M x s. Compared with sequences from a whole genome shotgun library from Aegilops tauschii (the D genome donor of bread wheat), the CF libraries exhibited 13.7-fold enrichment in genes, 5.8-fold enrichment in unknown low-copy sequences, and a 3-fold reduction in repetitive DNA. CF is twice as efficient as methylation filtration at enriching wheat genes. This research suggests that, with improvements, CF will be a highly useful tool in sequencing the gene space of wheat.
Nanduri B, Lawrence ML, Vanguri S, Burgess SC (2005) Proteomic analysis using an unfinished bacterial genome: the effects of subminimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on Mannheimia haemolytica virulence factor expression. Proteomics 5(18): 4852-4863.
Here we identify, using nonelectrophoretic proteomics, effects of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of two antibiotic preparations, chlortetracycline (CTC), and chlortetracycline-sulfamethazine (CTC + SMZ), on protein expression in the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica. The M. haemolytica genome is currently in draft form, and annotation is incomplete. Relying on the principle of gene sequence conservation across species, we used annotated genomes from closely related species to identify, confirm, and functionally annotate 495 M. haemolytica proteins. To conduct quantitative comparative proteomics, we developed a protein quantitation method based on the cross correlation function of the SEQUEST algorithm. When M. haemolytica was cultivated in the presence of 1/4 MIC of CTC and CTC + SMZ, expression of proteins involved in energy production, nucleotide metabolism, translation, and the bacterial stress response (chaperones) were affected. The most notable subMIC effect was a significant decrease in the expression of leukotoxin A, which is an important M. haemolytica virulence factor. Reduction in leukotoxin expression could be one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of these antibiotics against bovine respiratory disease.
Lahiri S, Pulakat L, Gavini N (2005) Functional NifD-K fusion protein in Azotobacter vinelandii is a homodimeric complex equivalent to the native heterotetrameric MoFe protein. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 337(2): 677-684.
The MoFe protein of the complex metalloenzyme nitrogenase folds as a heterotetramer containing two copies each of the homologous alpha and beta subunits, encoded by the nifD and the nifK genes respectively. Recently, the functional expression of a fusion NifD-K protein of nitrogenase was demonstrated in Azotobacter vinelandii, strongly implying that the MoFe protein is flexible as it could accommodate major structural changes, yet remain functional [M.H. Suh, L. Pulakat, N. Gavini, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 5353-5360]. This finding led us to further explore the type of interaction between the fused MoFe protein units. We aimed to determine whether an interaction exists between the two fusion MoFe proteins to form a homodimer that is equivalent to native heterotetrameric MoFe protein. Using the Bacteriomatch Two-Hybrid System, translationally fused constructs of NifD-K (fusion) with the full-length lambdaCI of the pBT bait vector and also NifD-K (fusion) with the N-terminal alpha-RNAP of the pTRG target vector were made. To compare the extent of interaction between the fused NifD-K proteins to that of the beta-beta interactions in the native MoFe protein, we proceeded to generate translationally fused constructs of NifK with the alpha-RNAP of the pTRG vector and lambdaCI protein of the pBT vector. The strength of the interaction between the proteins in study was determined by measuring the beta-galactosidase activity and extent of ampicillin resistance of the colonies expressing these proteins. This analysis demonstrated that direct protein-protein interaction exists between NifD-K fusion proteins, suggesting that they exist as homodimers. As the interaction takes place at the beta-interfaces of the NifD-K fusion proteins, we propose that these homodimers of NifD-K fusion protein may function in a similar manner as that of the heterotetrameric native MoFe protein. The observation that the extent of protein-protein interaction between the beta-subunits of the native MoFe protein in BacterioMatch Two-Hybrid System is comparable to the extent of protein-protein interaction observed between the NifD-K fusion proteins in the same system further supports this idea.
Liu D, Wang C, Swiatlo E, Lawrence ML (2005) PCR amplification of a species-specific putative transcriptional regulator gene reveals the identity of Enterococcus faecalis. Research in Microbiology 156(9): 944-948.
Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, has become prominent in recent decades due to its ability to develop resistance to various antibiotics. The ability to rapidly identify E. faecalis, followed by prompt treatment, is therefore vital for the control of this pathogen. In this report, upon comparative BLAST search of the E. faecalis genome against other bacterial DNA sequences at GenBank, an E. faecalis-specific gene Ef0027, that codes for a putative phosphosugar binding transcriptional regulator, was identified. Using PCR primers derived from this gene (i.e., Ef0027F/R), a specific DNA fragment of 518 bp was detected in E. faecalis strains only, and it was not found in other Enterococcus species and common bacteria. These results suggest that PCR amplification of the putative transcriptional regulator gene Ef0027 provides a useful means of identifying E. faecalis from other bacteria.
Hawkins LK, Windham GL, Williams WP (2005) Effect of different postharvest drying temperatures on Aspergillus flavus survival and aflatoxin content in five maize hybrids. Journal of Food Protection 68(7): 1521-1524.
After harvest, maize is dried artificially to halt fungal growth and mycotoxin production while in postharvest storage. The process often limits harvest capacity and has been a frequent cause of seed injury. Higher drying temperatures could lead to shorter drying periods and faster turnover; however, there is often a deterioration of the physical grain quality, including increased breakage susceptibility and loss of viability. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of different postharvest drying temperatures on Aspergillus filavus and Fusarium verticillioides survival and aflatoxin content in maize and to determine the viability of the seed. Five corn hybrids varying in resistance to A. flavus were side needle-inoculated with A. flavus, harvested at physiological maturity, and dried at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 degrees C. Kernels were evaluated for aflatoxin, stress cracks, germination, and kernel infection by A. flavus and a natural infestation of F. verticillioides. Drying temperature had no effects on aflatoxin concentration given the heat stability of the toxin. With increased temperatures from 40 to 70 degrees C, germination decreased significantly, from 96 to 27%, and stress cracks increased significantly (1.4 up to 18.7). At temperatures above 60 degrees C, F. verticillioides kernel infection was significantly reduced to less than 18%. At 70 degrees C, there was a significant reduction in A. flavus kernel infection, from 11 to 3%. This information is useful in determining a range of temperatures that can be used for drying seed when fungal infection, stress cracks, and seed viability are of interest.
Williams ML, Lawrence ML (2005) Identification and characterization of a two-component hemolysin from Edwardsiella ictaluri. Veterinary Microbiology 108(42067): 281-289.
The channel catfish pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri possesses hemolysin activity, and strains that are adapted for growth in fish tend to have greater hemolysin activity than strains that are adapted for in vitro growth conditions. To investigate its potential role in virulence, an isogenic hemolysin mutant strain of E. ictaluri R4383 was constructed by transposon mutagenesis. Sequencing of the chromosomal insertion site identified two genes, designated eihA and eihB, that encode proteins with homology to the Serratia family of two-component hemolysins. EihB is similar to the secretion/activation proteins from this family, and EihA is similar to the cytolysin proteins from this family. Bacterial challenge in channel catfish fingerlings did not show a significant difference in virulence between the wild type E. ictaluri strain and the hemolysin deficient E. ictaluri mutant strain.